Carol Rauen, rn-bc, ms, ccrn, pccn, cen, the department editor, is an independent clinical nurse specialist in The Outer Banks of North Carolina and a staff nurse in the burn trauma intensive care unit at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital in Virginia. Carol welcomes feedback from readers and practice questions from potential contributors at


Thora Tollefson, rn, msn, ccrn, fnp-bc, surgical intensive care staff nurse and critical care nurse residency coordinator at Ministry St Joseph’s Hospital in Marshfield, Wisconsin, wrote the adult CCRN questions.


Heather Dietzler, rn, msn, cne, clinical nurse specialist at the Marshfield Clinical in Marshfield, Wisconsin, wrote the CMC questions.


The dictionary definition of competence is “the ability to do something successfully or efficiently.” Synonyms for competence include capability, ability, proficiency, expertise, adeptness, skill, mastery, talent, and...

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