Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), and central venous pressure (CVP) may aid in the differential diagnosis in pulmonary hypertension1–4  and may be beneficial in complex shock states. Less invasive hemodynamic methods, in conjunction with the patient’s medical history, may also be useful in the differential diagnosis of cardiogenic shock.

The appropriate use of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC)–guided therapy is associated with decreased mortality in patients with refractory heart failure/cardiogenic shock but is not associated with improved outcomes in patients with less severe heart failure. In trauma patients, PAC-guided therapy may benefit older, more severely injured patients, but use of a PAC is not associated with improved outcomes in other trauma populations.8,9  Use of a PAC is not associated with improved outcomes in other populations, including high-risk cardiothoracic surgery10  and...

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