Carol Rauen, rn-bc, ms, ccrn, pccn, cen, the department editor, is an independent clinical nurse specialist in The Outer Banks of North Carolina and a staff nurse in the burn trauma intensive care unit at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital in Virginia. Carol welcomes feedback from readers and practice questions from potential contributors at


Pamela Shumate, rn, dnp, ccrn, cne, assistant professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, wrote the introduction and the adult CCRN review questions.


Nicole Gendron-Trainer, rn, msn, cns-bc, ccrn-k, educational coordinator for critical care and emergency service lines, Inova Health System, Fairfax, Virginia, contributed the PCCN review questions.


For the 14th year in a row, nursing is regarded as the most trusted profession in the United States. According to the annual Gallup poll, 85% of Americans rated nurses’ honesty and integrity standards as...

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