Carol Rauen, rn-bc, ms, ccrn, pccn, cen, the department editor, is an independent clinical nurse specialist from St Augustine, Florida. She wrote the CCRN review questions. Carol welcomes feedback from readers and practice questions from potential contributors at [email protected].


Sara Knippa, rn, ms, cns, ccrn, pccn, accns-ag, the department co-editor, is clinical nurse specialist/educator in the cardiac intensive care unit at University of Colorado Hospital. Sara co-wrote the CCRN review questions.


Mary Beth Flynn Makic, rn, phd, cns, ccns, is an associate professor at the University of Colorado College of Nursing, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado. She wrote the PCCN questions.


Navigating the 7 Cs of certified practice is difficult even with fair winds and clear skies. Competence, critical thinking, collaboration, consultation, communication, continuity, and compassion are challenging even in healthy work environments with strong teams. It takes an...

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