Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP), and central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring may aid in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and may be beneficial in complex shock states. Appropriate use of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) may benefit patients with refractory heart failure/cardiogenic shock, and older, more severely injured trauma patients. These catheters are not associated with improved outcomes in patients with less severe heart failure, other trauma patients, or high-risk cardiothoracic surgery patients. In these and general intensive care unit (ICU) patients, less-invasive measurements such as functional hemodynamics or peripheral venous pressures are an alternative to PAP, PAOP, and CVP. Because the use of PACs has decreased, particularly in nonsurgical ICUs, alternative training methods such as simulation may be needed to maintain proficiency in PAP monitoring.

Monitor for complications during catheter insertion and use.

Perform a square waveform test a appropriate intervals as determined by...

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