What is the effect of using low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylactically on the incidence of central venous catheterization–related thrombosis in pediatric patients? What is the effect of using LMWH on rates of occluded central venous catheters (CVCs), number of days of CVC patency, incidence of catheter-related sepsis, incidence of adverse effects of LMWH, and incidence of mortality while the patient is receiving the treatment?

The use of CVCs has been commonplace in critically ill patients since the 1970s (notably the work of Broviac et al in 1973 and Hickman et al in 1979). Pediatric patients, especially those with congenital heart defects or cancer diagnoses, need CVCs for many reasons, including central venous pressure monitoring, total parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, and vasoactive medication administration. Although having venous access through a CVC can provide lifesaving therapies, it is not free from complications. Two common complications...

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