For opioid-naïve patients, generally, a 3- to 5-day supply may be sufficient. Consultation with a provider may need to be arranged if another prescription is needed. The practice of safe prescribing is not intended to deny patients pain medication, but to prescribe safely and with appropriate follow-up.

Bupivacaine liposome injection is often used intraoperatively, especially with abdominal and orthopedic procedures. This injection is expected to last 96 hours, but that can vary from patient to patient.

The transition to oral medications can be made easier with the use of an opioid calculator. Please exercise caution and use a verified opioid calculator from a reliable source; it should help determine initial and subsequent dosing. Also take into account the equianalgesic chart and cross-tolerance if changing medication.

Setting reasonable patient and family expectations is a key component in developing the plan of care. Providing education and definitions to patients about tolerance and...

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