Fulminant myocarditis is a devastating disease with significant mortality and complications. The care of patients with fulminant myocarditis is rarely reported.
A 17-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with dizziness, amaurosis fugax, and chest tightness. Initial assessment revealed elevated levels of troponin T (4.753 ng/mL), troponin I (49.540 ng/mL), creatine kinase (1306 U/L), creatine kinase–MB isoenzymes (75.71 ng/mL), lactate dehydrogenase (509 U/L), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (6345 pg/mL). The patient had recurrent ventricular tachycardia and failed to maintain a sinus rhythm after multiple electrical cardioversions.
Echocardiography revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 34%. Magnetic resonance imaging results confirmed the diagnosis of myocarditis.
The patient received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 6 days, intra-aortic balloon pump support for 7 days, and mechanical ventilation for 5 days. Norepinephrine and dopamine were used to keep circulation stable, lidocaine and amiodarone were used to control heart rate, and glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins were used to modulate immunity.
The patient was discharged after 23 days. A month after discharge, echocardiography showed that the ejection fraction was 60%. The patient reported complete resolution of signs and symptoms of fulminant myocarditis at follow-up assessment.
This case report presents the activities of bedside nurses in caring for a patient with fulminant myocarditis and broadens the literature describing nursing interventions for patients with fulminant myocarditis.