About Critical Care Nurse
The mission of Critical Care Nurse, a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal, is to provide critical and acute care nurses with relevant, useful, and evidence-based information concerning the bedside care of critically and acutely ill patients and to keep critical and acute care nurses informed on issues that affect the quality and safety of their practice. By reading any issue of Critical Care Nurse, critical and acute care nurses will benefit through increased knowledge, which they will be able to use to achieve optimal outcomes when caring for patients and their families.
EditorANNETTE M. BOURGAULT, PhD, RN, CNL, FAAN
Founding EditorsVEE RICE, PhD, RN
PENNY VAUGHN, MSN, RN
Editor EmeritaJoANN GRIF ALSPACH, EdD, MS, RN
JENNY ALDERDEN, PhD, APRN, CCRN, CCNS
Critical Care Nurse Specialist and Assistant Professor, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho
CARL GOFORTH, PhD, RN, CCRN
Chief Nursing Officer, Navy Medicine and Readiness Training Command, Jacksonville, Florida; Adjunct Faculty, Uniformed Services University
SUSAN FLEWELLING GORAN, MSN, RN
Nursing Adjunct Faculty Member, University of New England, Maine
A. BRAD HALL, PharmD
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Emergency Medicine, Lakeland Regional Health, Florida; Student, Class of 2023, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida
SHANNAN K. HAMLIN, PhD, RN, AGACNP, CCRN-K, NE-BC
Director, Center for Nursing Research, Education and Practice; Associate Professor of Nursing, Houston Methodist Academic Institution, Houston Methodist Hospital, Texas
RUTH LEBET, PhD, RN, CCNS-PRUTH LEBET, PhD, RN, CCNS-P
Nurse Scientist, Department of Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and Program Director Pediatric and Neonatal CNS programs, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
NESTOR NEIL A. PEIG, MSN, RN, CNS, CCRN, AGCNS-BC
Cardiac Critical Care Clinical Nurse Specialist and Regional Nursing Research Committee Liaison, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, California
TARA L. SACCO, PhD, RN, CCRN-K, ACCNS-AG
Assistant Professor and Clinical Nurse Specialist Program Coordinator, Wegmans School of Nursing, St. John Fisher University; Clinical Nurse Specialist, Adult Critical Care Nursing, University of Rochester Medical Center, New York
DEBRA SIELA, PhD, RN, CCNS, ACNS-BC, CCRN-K, CNE, RRT
Associate Professor of Nursing, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana
L. DOUGLAS SMITH JR, DNP, APRN, ACNP-BC, CCRN, CNRN, SCRN
Lead Advanced Practice Provider/Critical Care Nurse Practitioner, ICC Healthcare at TriStar Centennial Medical Center; Instructor of Nursing, Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Program, Vanderbilt University School of Nursing, Tennessee
Publishing Manager: MICHAEL MUSCAT
Managing Editor: REBECKA WULF
Graphic Specialist: MATTHEW EDENS
Senior Publishing Associate: SAM MARSELLA
Copy Editors: JULIE HENDERSON, JENNIFER HOLMES, ANNETTE THEURING, and LAURIE ANNE WALDEN
Clinical Advisers: CINDY CAIN, SARAH DELGADO, ROSEMARIE FABER, SARA GRIESHOP, JULIE MILLER, and MEREDITH PADILLA
Consulting Editor: JOANN GRIF ALSPACH
Peer-Review Coordinator: BETTY SCHIEFELBEIN
American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
Theresa Davis, PhD, RN, NE-BC, CHTP
Jennifer Adamski, DNP, APRN, ACNP-BC, CCRN
Kirsten Skillings, MA, APRN, CCRN-K, CCNS
Nicole Fontenot, DNP, APRN, ACNP-BC, CCNS, CCRN-K
Joseph Falise, MSN, RN, CCRN-CSC
Veronica Gurule, MSN, BSN, RN, CCRN
Desiree Hodges, MBA, BSN, RN, CCRN, NE-BC
Sara Knippa, MS, RN, ACCNS-AG, CCRN, PCCN
Tiffany Mullen, MSN, RN, ACCNS-P, CCRN
Janet Mulroy, DNP, ACNP, CCNS, CCRN
Lynn Orser, MSN, RN, CCRN, PCCN, NPD-BC
Tonka Williams, MHA, BSN, RN, CMSRN
Chief Executive Officer
Dana Woods, MBA
Critical Care Nurse (ISSN 0279-5442) is published bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December) by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), 27071 Aliso Creek Rd, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656. Telephone: (949) 362-2000. FAX: (949) 362-2049. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Copyright 2023 by AACN. All rights reserved.
Critical Care Nurse is an official peer-reviewed publication of AACN. AACN journals do not charge author fees. Revenues are based on membership dues, individual and institutional subscriptions (including aggregated collections), advertising, reprints, single-copy sales, online pay-per-view options, and reuse permissions. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage retrieval system without permission of AACN. For all permission requests, please contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Customer Service, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. (978) 750-8400. Prices on bulk reprints of articles is available on request from AACN at (800) 899-1712.
The statements and opinions contained herein are solely those of individual contributors and not of the editors or AACN. The editors and AACN assume that articles emanating from a particular institution are submitted with the approval of the requisite authority, including all matters pertaining to human studies and patient privacy requirements. Advertisements in this journal are not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products by the editors or AACN, who disclaim all responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas or products referred to in articles or advertisements.
The name and title Critical Care Nurse are protected through a trademark registration in the US Patent Office. Critical Care Nurse is indexed in Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO collections, and Ovid collections. Electronic copies of all content are stored in a separate location in addition to the publishing office.
Printed in the USA. Periodicals postage paid at Laguna Beach, California, and additional mailing offices. Change of address: Send notices to CRITICAL CARE NURSE, Subscription Service Department, 27071 Aliso Creek Rd, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656. Allow 4 to 6 weeks for change to take effect. Printed on acid-free paper.
Copyright © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses 2023. All rights reserved.
Individual subscriptions: US and possessions, $39; all other countries, $85. Institutional rates: US, print and online, $623; all other countries, $826. Institutional rates (print only): US, $442; all other countries, $630. Institutional rates (online only): US, $383; all other countries, $383. Single copies and back issues: US, $50; all other countries, US$60. Owing to delivery issues, only online subscriptions are available in China, India, the Middle East, and Africa.
For membership and subscription questions: AACN members, individual nonmembers, call (800) 899-2226 or (949) 362-2000 or email email@example.com; for institution subscription questions: call (800) 336-6348 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. Pay per view of individual articles and issues is available on the respective article and issue pages. Change of address: Send notices to CRITICAL CARE NURSE, Subscription Service Department, 27071 Aliso Creek Rd, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656-3399. Allow 4 to 6 weeks for change to take effect.
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